Ukraine: conflict at the crossroads between Europe and Russia (2023)


Ukraine has long played an important, if sometimes overlooked, role in the global security order. Today, the country is at the forefront of a renewed rivalry between great powers that, according to many analysts, will dominate international relations for decades to come.

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Robert D. Blackwill

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(Video) Crisis Crossroads Ukraine: A New Phase of War

Russia's invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 marked a dramatic escalation of the eight-year conflict between the two countries and a historic turning point for European security. After six months, many defense and foreign policy analysts described the war as a major strategic mistake by Russian President Vladimir Putin that jeopardized his longtime rule.

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Many observers see little prospect of a diplomatic solution in the coming months, instead recognizing the potential for a dangerous escalation that could involve Russia's use of a nuclear weapon. The war accelerated Ukraine's effort to align itself with Western political blocs, including the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

Why is Ukraine a geopolitical hotspot?

Ukraine was the cornerstone of the Soviet Union, the United States' archrival during the Cold War. It was the second most populous and powerful of the fifteen Soviet republics after Russia, home to much of the Union's agricultural production, defense industry and military, including the Black Sea Fleet and part of the nuclear arsenal. So important was Ukraine to the Union that its decision to sever ties in 1991 proved to be a coup de grace for the ailing superpower.

During the three decades of independence, Ukraine has tried to chart its own path as a sovereign state, while achieving closer alignment with Western institutions, including theUEand Nato. However, Kyiv has struggled to balance and unite its external relations.deep internal divisions🇧🇷 A more nationalistic Ukrainian-speaking population in the western parts of the country generally favored closer integration with Europe, while a predominantly Russian-speaking community in the east favored closer ties with Russia.

Ukraine became a battleground in 2014 when Russia annexed Crimea and began arming and supporting separatists in the southeastern Donbass region. Russia's conquest of Crimea marked the first time since World War II that one European state had annexed the territory of another. More than 14,000 people died in fighting in Donbass between 2014 and 2021, Europe's bloodiest conflict since the Balkan wars of the 1990s. The hostilities marked a marked shift in the global security environment from a unipolar period of US dominance to one defined byrenewed competition between the great powers[PDF].

More from our experts

Stefan Sestanowitsch

Who are Russia's war hawks and do they matter?

(Video) Crisis Crossroads Ukraine: Europe United

Thomas Graham

Does Putin's Gamble Make Russia's War in Ukraine More Dangerous?

Robert D. Blackwill

CFR Blackwill on US-China Relations, Ukraine, US Pivot to Asia

In February 2022, Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine with the aim of overthrowing the western-leaning government of Volodymyr Zelenskyy.

What general interests does Russia have in Ukraine?

Russia has deep cultural, economic and political ties with Ukraine, and Ukraine is in many ways central to Russia's identity and vision in the world.

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NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)


(Video) Crisis Crossroads Ukraine: Putin's Crackdown and its Consequences

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family ties🇧🇷 Russia and Ukraine have strong family ties that go back centuries. Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine, is sometimes called the "mother of Russian cities" in terms of cultural influence with Moscow and St. Petersburg. Christianity was brought from Byzantium to the Slavic peoples in Kyiv in the 8th and 9th centuries. And it was Christianity that anchored Kievan Rus', the ancient Slavic state from which modern Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians draw their lineage.

russian diaspora🇧🇷 According to a census taken this year, about eight million ethnic Russians lived in Ukraine in 2001, mostly in the south and east. As a pretext for its actions in Crimea and Donbass in 2014, Moscow claimed that it had a duty to protect these people.

superpower image🇧🇷 After the collapse of the Soviet Union, many Russian politicians saw the divorce from Ukraine as a historic mistake and a threat to Russia's position as a great power. Losing lasting dominance over Ukraine and dropping it into Western orbit would be seen by many as a major blow to Russia's international prestige. In 2022, Putin portrayed the escalating war with Ukraine as part of a broader struggle against Western powers, which he says are intent on destroying Russia.

Creme🇧🇷 Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev transferred Crimea from Russia to Ukraine in 1954 to strengthen "brotherly relations between the Ukrainian and Russian peoples". Since the collapse of the Union, however, many Russian nationalists in Russia and Crimea have yearned for a return to the peninsula. The city of Sevastopol is the home port of the Russian Black Sea Fleetdominant sea powerin the region.

To act🇧🇷 Russia has been Ukraine's biggestcommercial partner, although that connection has drastically declined in recent years. china finallyOvertook Russia in tradewith Ukraine. Before invading Crimea, Russia had hoped to draw Ukraine into its single market, the Eurasian Economic Union, which now includes Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

Energy🇧🇷 For decades, Russia has relied on Ukrainian pipelines to pump its gas to customers in Central and Eastern Europe, and has paid Kyiv billions of dollars a year in transit fees. The flow of Russian gas through Ukrainecontinued at the end of 2022However, despite hostilities between the two countries, volumes have been reduced and the pipeline remains at serious risk.

political influence🇧🇷 Russia has struggled to maintain its political influence in Ukraine and across the former Soviet Union, especially after its 2004 presidential candidate, Viktor Yanukovych, lost to a reformist competitor in the popular Orange Revolution movement. This shock to Russia's interests in Ukraine came after a similar electoral defeat for the Kremlin in Georgia in 2003, known as the Rose Revolution, followed by another - the Tulip Revolution - in Kyrgyzstan in 2005. Yanukovych later became president of the Ukraine in 2010 amid voter dissatisfaction with the Orange government.

What triggered Russia's moves in Crimea and Donbass in 2014?

It was Ukraine's relations with the EU that raised tensions with Russia in 2013/14. In late 2013, under pressure from his supporters in Moscow, President Yanukovych rejected plans to formalize closer economic relations with the EU. At the same time, Russia pressured Ukraine to join the still-unestablished EAEU. Many Ukrainians saw Yanukovych's decision as a betrayal of a deeply corrupt and incompetent government, sparking nationwide protests known as Euromaidan.

Putin has portrayed the ensuing Euromaidan riot that ousted Yanukovych from power as a Western-backed "fascist coup d'état" that endangered Crimea's ethnic Russian majority. (Western leaders dismissed this as baseless propaganda left over from the Soviet era.) In response, Putin ordered a secret invasion of Crimea, which he later justified as a ransom. “Everything has a limit. And with Ukraine, our Western partners crossed the border,” Putin said.a March 2014 addressFormalization of annexation.

Putin used a similar narrative to justify his support for separatists in southeastern Ukraine, another region that is home to large numbers of ethnic Russians and Russian speakers. He referred to the area as Novorossiya (New Russia), a term that dates back to 18th-century Imperial Russia. Armed Russian provocateurs, including some agents of Russian security services, are believed to have played a key role in inciting anti-Euromaidan separatist movements in the region to rebel. However, unlike Crimea, Russia continued to officially deny its involvement in the Donbass conflict until it launched its wider invasion of Ukraine in 2022.

Why did Russia launch a full-scale invasion of Ukraine in 2022?

Some Western analysts see the 2022 invasion of Russia as the culmination of the Kremlin's growing resentment of NATO's post-Cold War expansion into the former Soviet sphere of influence. Russian leaders, including Putin, have asserted that the United States and NATOrepeatedly break the promises they madeIn the early 1990s, the alliance failed to expand into the former eastern bloc. They see NATO expansion in this turbulent period for Russia as a humiliating impertinence they can only watch.

In the weeks leading up to the 2008 NATO summit, President Vladimir Putinwarned American diplomatsthat measures to bring Ukraine into the alliance would be "an act hostile towards Russia". Months later, Russia went to war with Georgia, apparently demonstrating Putin's willingness to use force to protect his country's interests. (Some independent observersGeorgia complainedfor starting the so-called August War, but accused Russia of escalating hostilities.)

While Ukraine remained a non-member, it expanded its ties with NATO in the years leading up to the 2022 invasion. Ukraine held annual military exercises with the alliance and in 2020 became one of only six enhanced opportunity partners, a status special for the non-member allies closest to the bloc. Furthermore, Kyiv reaffirmed its goal of eventually becoming a full member of NATO.

In the weeks leading up to its invasion, Russia madeseveral important security requirementsthe United States and NATO, including halting alliance expansion, gaining Russian approval for certain NATO deployments, and removing US nuclear weapons from Europe. Alliance leaders responded that they were open to new diplomacy, but unwilling to discuss closing NATO's doors to new members.

“While in the United States we are talking about acrisis in ukraine, from a Russian perspective, this is a crisis in the European security architecture,” said Thomas Graham of the CFRgun control todayin February 2022. "And the fundamental issue they want to negotiate is the revision of the European security architecture as it stands now, towards something more conducive to Russian interests."

Other experts said that perhaps the most important motivating factor for Putin was his fear that Ukraine would continue to evolve into a modern Western-style democracy, which would inevitably undermine his autocratic rule in Russia and thwart his hopes of rebuilding a Russian-led sphere. . influence in Eastern Europe. “[Putin] wantsdestabilize Ukraine, frighten Ukraine,” writes historian Anne Applebaum inAtlantic🇧🇷 “He wants Ukrainian democracy to fail. He wants the Ukrainian economy to collapse. He wants foreign investors to flee. He wants his neighbors – in Belarus, Kazakhstan, even Poland and Hungary – to doubt that democracy will ever be viable in their countries in the long term.”

What are Russia's goals in Ukraine?

Putin's Russia has been described as a revanchist power eager to regain its former power and prestige. "It has always been Putin's goal to restore Russia to great power status in northern Eurasia," writes Gerard Toal, professor of international relations at Virginia Tech, in his bookclose to the outside🇧🇷 "The ultimate goal was not to recreate the Soviet Union, but to make Russia great again."

(Video) Crisis Crossroads Ukraine: Pathways Out of Conflict

By conquering Crimea in 2014, Russia consolidated its control of a strategic position on the Black Sea. With a larger and more sophisticated military presence there, Russia can project its power deeper into the Mediterranean, Middle East and North Africa, where it has traditionally had limited influence. Some analysts argue that Western powers have not imposed significant costs on Russia in response to the annexation of Crimea, which they say only increased Putin's willingness to use military force to further his foreign policy goals. Until its invasion in 2022, Russia's strategic gains in Donbass were more fragile. Supporting the separatists had, at least temporarily, strengthened their bargaining power with Ukraine.

In July 2021, Putin wrote an article that many Western foreign policy experts found to be a threatening article.explains his controversial opinionsof common history between Russia and Ukraine. Among other things, Putin described Russians and Ukrainians as "one people" effectively occupying "the same historical and spiritual space".

Throughout the year, under the auspices of military exercises, Russia mustered tens of thousands of troops along the border with Ukraine and later in allied Belarus. In February 2022, Putin ordered a full-scale invasion, during which he crossed a force of around 200,000 troops from the south (Crimea), east (Russia) and north (Belarus) into Ukrainian territory in an attempt to capture major cities. . including the capital Kyiv, and overthrow the government. Putin said the overall goals were to "denazify" and "demilitarize" Ukraine.

However, in the first weeks of the invasion, Ukrainian forces put up a staunch resistance, which was stop the Russian militaryin many areas including Kyiv. Many defense analysts say the Russian military suffered from low morale, poor logistics and an ill-conceived military strategy that assumed Ukraine would fall quickly and easily.

In late August, Ukraine launched a major counteroffensive against Russian forces, retaking thousands of square kilometers of territory in the Kharkiv and Kherson regions. The campaigns were a major setback for Russia. Amid the Russian withdrawal, Putin ordered the mobilization of some 300,000 troops, illegally annexed four more Ukrainian regions andthreatened to use nuclear weaponsto defend Russia's "territorial integrity". Most security analysts see little chance for diplomacy in the coming months, as both sides have strong motives to continue the fight.

What were the US priorities in Ukraine?

In the immediate aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union, Washington's priority was to pressure Ukraine — along with Belarus and Kazakhstan — to abandon its nuclear arsenal so that only Russia would retain the weapons of the former union. At the same time, the United States rushed to shore up Russia's fragile democracy. Some prominent observers at the time felt that the United States was premature in courting Russia and that it should work harder to promote geopolitical pluralism in the rest of the former Soviet Union.

Former US National Security Advisor Zbigniew BrzezinskiForeign Affairsdescribed a healthy and stable Ukraine as one in early 1994critical counterweight to Russiaand the axis of what he advocated would be the new grand strategy of the post-Cold War United States. "It cannot be overstated that without Ukraine Russia ceases to be an empire, but with the subordination and subordination of Ukraine, Russia automatically becomes an empire," he wrote. In the months following the publication of Brzezinski's article, the US, UK and Russia pledged in the Budapest referendum to respect Ukraine's independence and sovereignty in exchange for becoming a non-nuclear state.

Twenty years later, when Russian troops occupied Crimea, restoring and strengthening Ukraine's sovereignty again became a top US and EU foreign policy priority. After the 2022 invasion, US and NATO allies dramatically increased defense, economic and humanitarian aid to Ukraine and tightened their sanctions against Russia. However, Western leaders have been careful to avoid actions that they believe would draw their countries in or escalate war, which, in extreme cases, could pose a nuclear threat.


Ukraine's struggle for independence in Russia's shadow

see the timeline
Ukraine: conflict at the crossroads between Europe and Russia (1)

What are US and EU policies on Ukraine?

The United States remains committed to restoring Ukraine's territorial integrity and sovereignty. It does not recognize Russia's claims to Crimea or other regions illegally annexed by Russia. Before the 2022 invasion, the United States supported a settlement for the Donbass conflictthe Minsk agreements[PDF].

Western powers and their partners have taken many steps to increase aid to Ukraine and punish Russia for its 2022 offensive.$17 billion in security aid[PDF], including advanced rocket and missile systems, helicopters and deadly drones. Several NATO allies are providing similar security assistance.

meanwhile theInternational Sanctionsin Russia have expanded enormously, encompassing much of the financial, energy, defense and technology sectors and targeting the assets of wealthy oligarchs and others. The US and some European governments have also banned some Russian banks from participating in the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication, a financial messaging system known as SWIFT; restrictions on Russia's ability to access its vast foreign exchange reserves; and blacklisted the Central Bank of Russia. In addition, many influential Western companies have ceased or ceased operations in Russia. The Group of Eight, now known as thegroup of seven, suspended Russia indefinitely from its ranks in 2014.

The invasion also cost Russia the long-awaited Nord Stream 2 pipeline after Germany withheld its regulatory approval in February. Many critics, including US and Ukrainian officials, rejected the pipeline as it was being developed, claiming it would give Russia greater political influence in Ukraine and the European gas market. In August, Russia indefinitely suspended operations on Nord Stream 1, which supplied the European market with up to a third of its natural gas.

What do Ukrainians want?

Russia's aggression in recent years has increased public support for the westernization of Ukraine. After Euromaidan, the country elected billionaire businessman Petro Poroshenko, a staunch supporter of EU and NATO integration, as president. In 2019, Zelenskyy defeated Poroshenko in a sign of deep public dissatisfaction with the political establishment and its faltering fight against corruption and an oligarchic economy.

Before the 2022 offensive, polls showed that Ukrainians had mixed views on thisNATO and EU membership🇧🇷 More than half of respondents (excluding residents of Crimea and the warring regions to the east) were in favor of joining the EU, while 40 to 50 percent were in favor of joining NATO.

Just days after the invasion, President Zelenskyy called on the EU to put Ukraine on a fast track to membership. The country became an official candidate in June, butexperts warnthat the accession process can take years. In September, Zelenskyy presentedFormal application to Ukraineto join NATO and push for an accelerated admission process to this bloc as well. Many Western analysts say that, similar to Ukraine's EU candidacy, NATO membership does not seem likely in the short term.

(Video) Crisis Crossroads Ukraine: Mapping the War


How Russia Ukraine war is affecting Europe? ›

Mobility of people and goods. The invasion of Ukraine has had a significant impact on the mobility of people and goods in the EU across all modes of transport. Among the main issues are fuel supplies and increasing fuel prices, as well as logistical challenges linked to border crossings and airspace restrictions.

What is the point of conflict between Russia and Ukraine? ›

Relations between the two countries became hostile after the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, which was followed by Russia's annexation of Crimea from Ukraine, and the war in Donbas, in which Russia backed the separatist fighters of the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic.

What is the EU response to Russia invading Ukraine? ›

The EU has imposed several rounds of increasingly punitive sanctions—or restrictive measures— intended to cripple Russia's ability to finance the war against Ukraine, enact costs on Russia's elites, and diminish Russia's economic base. Imposing sanctions requires unanimity among EU members.

How do you explain conflict with children in Ukraine? ›

How to Talk With Your Child About the War in Ukraine
  1. Ask what your child has heard already. ...
  2. Respond with honest reassurance & don't discount fears. ...
  3. Avoid exposure to graphic images & repetitive media coverage. ...
  4. Recognize that some children may be at greater risk of distress. ...
  5. Provide thoughtful answers to common questions.
13 Oct 2022

Can Europe survive without Russian gas? ›

Even in a worst-case scenario, in which there is no piped Russian gas and low demand destruction, BNEF estimates Europe would still have enough gas to endure the coldest winter of the last 30 years without depleting its inventories. Looking further ahead, the region could be well-positioned for winter 2023-24 as well.

How will the Ukraine conflict affect the world? ›

The conflict is a major blow to the global economy that will hurt growth and raise prices. Beyond the suffering and humanitarian crisis from Russia's invasion of Ukraine, the entire global economy will feel the effects of slower growth and faster inflation.

What is the effect of Russia and Ukraine war in the economy? ›

As a result of its war, estimates of a 30-year economic setback are projected for Russia. A wave of protests and strikes have occurred across Europe against the rise of bills and living expenses.

What is the impact of Russia and Ukraine war on India? ›

The war and sanctions imposed on Russia took a toll on economies, threatening a further slowdown to global trade volume. Besides, the sharp rise in crude oil prices adversely impacted inflation in India.

What are the consequences of the Ukraine Crisis 2022? ›

The World Bank estimates that Ukraine's economy will shrink by almost 50 percent over the course of 2022. Estimates are that approximately 100 billion dollars' worth of damage has been inflicted on Ukraine and that it will take close to a trillion dollars to rebuild the country.

Has the EU sent weapons to Ukraine? ›

Just three days after Russia began its war of aggression against Ukraine, the European Union announced that it would provide weapons to Ukraine through a new financing instrument, the European Peace Facility (EPF), marking the first time in EU history that the bloc provided lethal weaponry.

What does NATO do for Ukraine? ›

How are Nato countries supporting Ukraine? Nato members have pledged millions of dollars' worth of air defence systems to Ukraine to guard against Russian attacks on cities, towns and civilian installations such as power stations, using missiles and "kamikaze" drones.

Does the EU military help Ukraine? ›

The EU stands firmly with Ukraine and will continue to provide military, economic, social and financial support for as long as it takes.

How do you talk to students about war? ›

How to talk about war with your young child
  1. Be brief and reassuring. ...
  2. Validate their feelings. ...
  3. Tell them that adults are working to keep them and everyone safe. ...
  4. Be ready to revisit the topic again and again. ...
  5. Be ready not to talk about it. ...
  6. Use plenty of nonverbal reassurance. ...
  7. Have confidence in your ability to help.
28 Feb 2022

How can we help children in war? ›

10 Tips for parents and teachers of elementary school children in a time of war
  1. Talk with your child. ...
  2. Make your home a safe place emotionally for your child. ...
  3. Limit the amount of news your child watches during a time of war. ...
  4. Realize that the stresses of war may heighten daily stresses.

What is the best way to help Ukraine? ›

If you want to quickly provide aid to Ukraine today, the best way is to donate to the Red Cross' Ukraine Crisis Appeal. Read through the FAQs below to learn how you can support Ukraine in other ways, such as hosting a refugee in your home and fundraising. Together we can change the lives of people in need.

How fast can Europe replace Russian gas? ›

If Europe can replicate its own maximum rate of deployment of nuclear power (which happened from the late 70s to early 80s), it could push out Russian gas out within 6 years. If Europe can replicate some of the faster rates, like those historically observed in Sweden, it could push out Russian gas within three years.

Can Europe replace Russian oil? ›

A crucial part of the European Union's plan to wean itself off Russian energy is to greatly increase purchases of liquefied natural gas from other producers. But the EU isn't yet equipped to receive enough of the fuel to replace Russian gas entirely.

Can US gas replace Russia? ›

U.S. LNG Cannot Replace The Russian Natural Gas That Europe Has Lost. Europe has relied on U.S. LNG imports to offset the loss of Russian gas, with nearly 70% of U.S. LNG exports heading to Europe in September.

How will the Ukraine conflict affect the economy? ›

Ukraine's economy is now projected to contract by 35% this year although economic activity is scarred by the destruction of productive capacity, damage to agricultural land, and reduced labor supply as more than 14 million people are estimated to have been displaced.

Why is Ukraine important to the world? ›

The Russian Federation and Ukraine are among the most important producers of agricultural commodities in the world. Both countries are leading suppliers of agricultural products to global markets, where exportable supplies are often concentrated in a handful of countries.

What does Ukraine supply to the world? ›

Agricultural products are Ukraine's most important exports. In 2021 they totaled $27.8 billion, accounting for 41 percent of the country's $68 billion in overall exports. Ukraine is normally the world's top producer of sunflower meal, oil, and seed and the world's top exporter of sunflower meal and oil.

How is Russia's economy doing now 2022? ›

The Russian economy is shrinking

By the end of 2022, Russia's gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to drop by at least 3.4% in the best-case scenario and by up to 5.5% in the worst-case scenario. Russia's economy will continue to shrink in 2023.

Why does war cause inflation? ›

Wars destroy physical capital, driving investment and interest rates higher: Wars are often associated with the widespread destruction of physical capital, a development that increases the demand for investment and pushes interest rates higher.

How does war affect the economy? ›

Wartime impact

Putting aside the real human cost, the war also affects economic costs and inflation, it causes uncertainty, a rise in debt and disruption of normal economic activity among many other things.

How is India important to Russia? ›

During the Cold War, India and the Soviet Union (USSR) had a strong strategic, military, economic and diplomatic relationship. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia inherited its close relationship with India which resulted in both nations sharing a special relationship.

Does India import oil from Russia? ›

Russia, which made up for just 0.2% of all oil imported by India in the year to March 31, 2022, supplied 9,35,556 barrels per day (bpd) of crude oil to India in October — the highest ever. It now makes up for 22% of India's total crude imports, ahead of Iraq's 20.5% and Saudi Arabia's 16%.

What will be the potential impact on Indian economy because of the Russia Ukraine War? ›

India imports $205 Billion worth of oils & minerals, $832 Million worth of precious stones, $609 Million worth of fertilizers from Russia, so increase in the prices of such commodities may lead to considerable inflation in the country.

How will the war in Ukraine affect us? ›

The global food supply will likely be disrupted as well. And we can expect to face pressure from our European allies to take in Ukrainian refugees, who are now fleeing their country in droves. The war in Ukraine will also drive inflation even higher, resulting in less buying power for every American family.

How war affects the world? ›

Effects of war also include mass destruction of cities and have long lasting effects on a country's economy. Armed conflict has important indirect negative consequences on infrastructure, public health provision, and social order. These indirect consequences are often overlooked and unappreciated.

How will the war in Ukraine affect US supply chain? ›

The Ukraine conflict is likely to have a continued inflationary impact on the costs of raw materials, energy, logistics, and digital services. Oil and gas prices, in particular, have already skyrocketed across the globe due to the high dependence on imports from Russia, the supplier of 40% of Europe's gas.

How many tanks does NATO have? ›

These tanks are only used in NATO by their respective countries. There are roughly 200 tanks in service for each tank type, making a total of 800, plus roughly 1500 Leopard 2's and roughly 2500 M1 Abrams, the majority of which are M1A2's and the rest M1A1's.

Who has supplied Ukraine with the most weapons? ›

The US is the largest provider of military assistance to Ukraine, having committed $20 billion since the start of the Biden administration. $19.3 billion of that assistance has been provided since February 2022.

Who is paying for weapons to Ukraine? ›

Following Russia's February 2022 invasion of Ukraine, the United States embarked on a long-term commitment to provide Ukraine with the tools and equipment it needs to defend its sovereignty. Since that time, more than $14.5 billion in assistance has been committed to Ukraine.

Why did Ukraine give up NATO? ›

Plans for NATO membership were shelved by Ukraine following the 2010 presidential election in which Viktor Yanukovych, who preferred to keep the country non-aligned, was elected President. Amid the unrest, caused by the Euromaidan protests, Yanukovych fled Ukraine in February 2014.

Can NATO help Ukraine fight? ›

Individual NATO member countries are sending weapons, ammunition and many types of light and heavy military equipment, including anti-tank and air defence systems, howitzers and drones. To date, NATO Allies have provided billions of euros' worth of military equipment to Ukraine.

How much military aid has France given Ukraine? ›

According to the Kiel Institute for the World Economy, a German organization that compiles information on military support to Ukraine, France is only 11th in terms of weapons deliveries, with €233 million of aid.

Which countries depend on Russia for energy? ›

Russia's top five pipeline gas consumers are Germany, Italy, Belarus, Turkey and the Netherlands. Its top five LNG consumers are Japan, China, France, Spain and Taiwan, according to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy.

How many countries are helping Ukraine military? ›

The Kiel Institute has tracked €93.8 billion from 40 countries in financial, humanitarian, and military aid to Ukraine, from 24 January to 3 October 2022.

How Ukraine war affect Europe economy? ›

Ukraine´s war economic impacts with short-term direct budgetary cost for the EU and its members could sum up to €175 billion or about 1.1 to 1.4% of GDP in 2022: - €50 billion to contain the domestic price consequences of an aggravated supply shock through transfers, tax cuts and administered price controls.

Does the war in Ukraine effect European travel? ›

Yes. With the exception of Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus and Russia, travel to almost all European countries such as Italy, Spain, France, Germany, the Czech Republic and Austria remains unaffected.

Will travel to Europe be affected by Ukraine invasion? ›

According to a recent survey conducted by MMGY Travel Intelligence, the research division of marketing research firm MMGY Global, the war in Ukraine is now twice as likely to impact Americans' travel plans to Europe as the coronavirus pandemic.

Will the conflict in Ukraine affect travel to Europe? ›

Bookings to Baltic destinations have slowed, according to specialist tour operator Regent Holidays, while a recent survey by travel agency MMGYGlobal found that the war in Ukraine is now twice as likely to impact Americans' plans to visit Europe than Covid-19.

Is inflation caused by Ukraine war? ›

The conflict and resulting sanctions have disrupted exports from the region for commodities like metals, food, oil and gas, pushing up inflation to levels not seen in decades.

How is Russia causing inflation? ›

The war has led to surging energy and food prices that are driving a galloping inflation rate and weighing on economic growth and consumer confidence.

How does war cause inflation? ›

Wars destroy physical capital, driving investment and interest rates higher: Wars are often associated with the widespread destruction of physical capital, a development that increases the demand for investment and pushes interest rates higher.

Is it safe to travel to Europe because of the war? ›

However, travel experts have noted that it is completely safe to travel to the EU as the other countries are not affected, reports. The war in Ukraine has caused its citizens to flee to neighbouring countries, mainly Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary.

Is it a good idea to go to Europe right now? ›

Much of Europe is open to Americans, including more than two dozen countries without any COVID restrictions at all. However, it's important to double-check before traveling in case requirements change. If you're vaccinated, most countries are open to you as long as you can show proof of vaccination.

Is now a good time to go to Europe? ›

The best time to visit Europe is typically during the shoulder season. Europe's spring shoulder season runs from mid-April to mid-June in most countries. The fall shoulder season is during September. During these times, crowds are thinner, prices still moderate, and the weather warm enough to enjoy your vacation.

Is it safe to travel to Europe because of Ukraine? ›

Travelers should feel safe going to most of Europe outside the conflict area — though they should, as always, keep in mind coronavirus entry requirements wherever they're heading.

Will travel to Europe be affected by Russian invasion? ›

But travel experts say it's unlikely many Americans will continue with their plans amid the invasion. "Tourism in Europe will continue," says Alan Fyall, the associate dean of academic affairs at the UCF Rosen College of Hospitality Management. "But to destinations deemed safe."

Will war in Russia affect travel to Europe? ›

Russia-Ukraine war is having a limited impact on Europe vacation bookings, experts say. Luxury travel advisor Runway Travel is having a “very busy” Europe leisure travel season despite the war in Ukraine. Americans are avoiding travel to some countries near the war zone.

How travel is being impacted by the Ukraine invasion? ›

(CNN) — Russia's invasion of Ukraine has spurred travel interruptions across the globe. The European Union closed all airspace across its 27 countries to Russian airplanes on Sunday following a steady stream of announcements of airspace closures from member countries over the weekend.

Will the Ukraine crisis affect travel? ›

A risk to the ongoing recovery of tourism

Russia's military offensive in Ukraine represents a downside risk for international tourism. It has exacerbated already high oil prices and transportation costs, increased uncertainty and caused a disruption of travel in Eastern Europe.

How will Ukraine war affect international travel? ›

Newsweek claims that with changing routes and rising fuel prices, the Ukraine war could increase some international air fares by over $120 each way. The heaviest impact will be on re-routed flights from Europe to North Asia, such as Korea and Japan.


1. Crisis Crossroads Ukraine: Russia's Political Goals
(Center for Strategic & International Studies)
2. BCOM GROUP-3 "Ukraine: Conflict at the Crossroads of Europe and Russia" Presentation
(Ashutosh Singh Patel)
3. Crisis Crossroads Ukraine: Impact on the Middle East
(Center for Strategic & International Studies)
4. Böll.Global 10 | Europe at a crossroads: The war in Ukraine and what it means for Europe
5. Crisis Crossroads Ukraine: Wartime Food Security
(Center for Strategic & International Studies)
6. Crisis Crossroads Ukraine: What's Next on Sanctions?
(Center for Strategic & International Studies)
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